The Nation of Islam was revived within a few years by various individuals, with the organization headed by Louis Farrakhan which preserved the original teachings of Elijah Muhammad being the most prominent of these. Today, followers of his organization number in the tens of thousands, far fewer than the number of African-Americans who follow Islam. Despite his illness, Farrakhan is still leader of the organization as well as a well-known public figure with an often controversial style. How did Islam spread throughout the world? This process varied depending on the location and historical period.
Islam in its early years unified the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, and this new unity led to conflict with the nearest major powers, the Byzantine and Persian empires. The result was a major spread of Muslim rule and the establishment of a Muslim empire; but Muslim rulers in this empire did not force, and often did not even encourage, conversion to Islam.
Conversion to Islam, even in areas under the control of Muslims, was a gradual process that took place over many centuries and was fostered through interaction, intermarriage, trade, and efforts by Sufis spiritual seekers. Earlier generations of European scholars believed that conversions to Islam were made at the point of the sword and that conquered peoples were given the choice of conversion or death. It is now apparent that conversion by force, while not unknown in Muslim countries, was, in fact, rare. Muslim conquerors ordinarily wished to dominate rather than convert, and most conversions to Islam were voluntary.
In areas like Indonesia now the largest Muslim-majority country and other parts of Southeast Asia, Islam spread mostly through traveling merchants and Sufis. In sub-Saharan Africa mostly West Africa, but also parts of Ethiopia , Islam spread mostly through trade and commercial relations. Rulers would sometimes adopt Islam while much of the population continued to practice their traditional religions.
In many areas currently or formerly ruled by Muslims, large segments of the population have maintained their ancestral religions. For example, Christians are a significant minority in largely Muslim Lebanon, and Hinduism remained a majority faith through centuries of Muslim rule in South Asia.
Today we believe that forced conversions or denying the religious rights of people of other faiths are as much a violation of Islamic principles as the forced conversion of the Germanic tribes under Charlemagne or the forced conversions of Native Americans or enslaved Africans are seen as violations of Christian principles in the eyes of most modern Christians. Historically, the difference originated from the question of succession after the death of the Prophet Muhammad and is related to differing views about appropriate leadership for the Muslim community.
In contrast, Sunnis believe that that the Muslim community was free to choose the most qualified person as ruler and that Muhammad did not appoint any particular person as his political successor, although he lauded his kinsmen, descendants, and companions as the spiritual heirs of his teachings. The main differences between them today are their sources of knowledge and religious leadership. When Ali was finally chosen as the fourth caliph or ruler, his rule was short-lived, and after his death his rival Muawiyyah quickly asserted his power and established Umayyad rule.
Many practices of the Umayyad dynasty, which had adopted a pattern of rule and succession that was starkly at odds with that of the Prophet Muhammad and the early caliphs, disturbed many Muslims, which led to a number of revolts by various groups. In response, the Alids fomented a number of small and unsuccessful rebellions. Under increasing repression by the Abbasids, their political movement took on a more theological character.
While today there are theological differences between these two major Islamic sects, they are in agreement on the cardinal points of faith and practice. Does the conflict impact American Muslims? In three Arab Spring countries Syria, Yemen, and Bahrain , the sectarian divide has also been among the many factors playing a role in the conflicts, but the conflicts began for the same political and social reasons that they erupted in other Arab Spring nations.
So while the two sides appear to be divided along sectarian lines, the conflict there is more a fight between an oppressive dictator and his political opponents than a specifically religious conflict.
How do Muslims define modesty? For some Muslims, modesty also includes humility towards God and other people. Modesty is described by the Prophet Muhammad as an important virtue. What is hijab? Today the term hijab is commonly used to refer either to the modest attire worn by Muslim women which includes a head scarf or specifically to the head scarf. Do Muslim women have to wear hijab cover their hair? Many Muslim women follow the normative ruling that the dress code for women in public includes covering everything except their face and hands. Other Muslim women emphasize the principle of modesty, which takes on different forms as previously described.
According to a Pew poll, majorities of Muslims in diverse countries believe that women should be free to choose whether or not to wear hijab.
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Why do some Muslim women cover their faces? Women who cover their faces understand modesty to include covering not only their entire body and head but also their faces. Therefore, when in public, they wear a burqa a loose garment which covers the body and face or niqab a covering for the face that leaves the eyes exposed.
Why are standards of modest dress different for men and women? Both sexes are required to dress modestly. For men, modest dress has traditionally required that, as a minimum, the area between the navel and the knees must be covered. For women, modest dress has traditionally included covering everything except the face and hands. In practice, while many Muslim women choose to wear hijab , many others do not, as it remains an individual choice that should not be coerced by anyone. Nevertheless, it remains the normative understanding of Muslim scholarship that men and women should wear loose fitting, non-transparent clothing that covers most of the body.
The traditional clothing worn by Muslim men in such places as South Asia, where they wear a loose shirt and pants shalvar-khamees , or in some Arab countries, where men wear what looks like a long dress jalaba and a headscarf kuffiyah , differs little in the extent of covering from the traditional dress of Muslim women.
While it is not as common to see this type of male dress in America, many Muslim men grow a beard and wear a head covering that resembles a skull cap, as do adherents of some other religious traditions. Are men and women equal in Islam? Normative Islamic teachings view women and men as equal on the grounds that all human beings are equal before God because they share the same God-given nature or fitra , dignity, and innate humanity.
Both are servants of God, worthy of respect, endowed with a soul and intellect. The Prophet Muhammad taught his followers to treat their sons and daughters the same, and, if anything, to show extra kindness and love to daughters. They are both called upon to seek knowledge, develop their potential, and work together to create a just and righteous society. On an individual level, they enjoy the same rights, including the right to choose their spouse and to own and keep their property and income.
While through much of history and still today Muslim women have been viewed and treated as lesser beings in various cultures and societies, this is due to patriarchal interpretations and cultural influences rather than specific scriptural teachings. They include the following:. You are from each other. How are women treated in Muslim countries? There are over fifty Muslim-majority countries in the world. So, while Muslim women are mistreated due to the factors mentioned above, in many Muslim-majority countries women are involved at the highest levels of education, employment, and politics, with growing numbers of physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other educated professionals.
Muslim women have even served as heads of state in a number of countries, including Bangladesh, Indonesia, Turkey, Kosovo, Mauritius, and Pakistan. Many Muslim women also elect to nurture their children and families with dignity, which remains a respected choice in these countries. Do Muslim women have to stay at home or can they work? According to the Gallup World Poll, majorities of Muslim respondents surveyed believe that women should have the right to hold any job for which they are qualified outside the home.
Increasing numbers of Muslim women throughout the world are employed in diverse professions, including those that are male dominated, such as medicine and engineering. However, many women of young children, like women everywhere, choose to be full-time mothers, which remains a respected choice in these countries. How does Islam view domestic violence? Domestic violence and spousal abuse violate Islamic principles of security, safety, and respect for human dignity; if severe enough, they may even violate the principle of respect for life.
According to classical Islamic law, spousal abuse, even if non-physical, is grounds for a Muslim woman to initiate divorce. The extant biographies of Muhammad record him as never having hit a woman or even a child and as condemning those who did. Are there any examples of Muslim women rulers or leaders? In recent decades women have been heads of state in several Muslim-majority nations:. While most rulers in Muslim history have been male, as in most societies, there have been a few female Muslim rulers in past centuries and in modern times.
According to historians, there have been thousands of female Muslim scholars throughout Islamic history, many of whom were teachers of renowned male scholars. Some notable examples include:. There are also many female Muslim scholars of Islam as well as renowned academics in related fields at leading universities today, including these examples:. On the contrary, there are many.
Hadith prophetic sayings encouraging the seeking of knowledge that have led numerous Muslim women in history to become scholars, writers, and teachers of both men and women, as noted in the previous question. Are Muslims allowed to marry people of other faiths? In this case, a Muslim husband must guarantee the right of his Christian or Jewish wife to worship God according to her religious beliefs.
The reverse, i. Therefore, for the protection of her freedom of religion, a Muslim woman has traditionally been required to marry a man who will give her the right to practice her faith—that is, a Muslim. Today, especially in areas where Muslims live as minorities, there is growing diversity in both theory and practice on this issue. How do Muslims get married? Marriage ceremonies among Muslims, like marriage ceremonies everywhere, vary widely in different locales and cultures. The religious ceremony includes the marriage proposal and acceptance and the presenting of a gift called mahr by the groom to the bride.
Wedding celebrations after the religious ceremony vary widely from culture to culture, but generally involve food, special clothing, and some type of celebration. In some societies, there may be several days of celebration before or after the wedding. Are arranged marriages condoned in Islam?
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Is it true that Muslim men can marry more than one woman? The vast majority of Muslims today are monogamous. Polygamy was not peculiar to the Arabian Peninsula; it was widespread in many cultures, including that of ancient Israel as portrayed in the Hebrew Bible, where many of the Patriarchs are described as having multiple wives and Israelite kings had harems numbering in the hundreds. Today polygamy is mainly practiced in the Gulf States and Africa where it is more culturally acceptable than in other Muslim societies.
Can women marry more than one man? Women are not permitted to marry more than one man polyandry. Since polygamy was permitted in the context of war, when caring for orphans was a major concern, this purpose would not be served by polyandry. What is the Islamic view of divorce? However, if these attempts fail, divorce as a last option is allowed and may, in some situations, be the best outcome. Can women initiate a divorce? In some Muslim-majority countries, a woman can get a divorce relatively easily while in other countries it is much more difficult.
Is Islam opposed to modernity? The question of modernity and faith, including Islam, depends on what is meant by the term modernity. If by modernity one means the use of science, reasoning, and invention to improve our lives, all of these are in line with the Islamic philosophy that led to the flowering of scientific exploration and technological innovation at the height of Islamic civilization in the Middle Ages, commonly known as the Golden Age of Islam.
The mere fact that Muslims are living and practicing Islam years after its founding in the modern, post-Enlightenment world in Western societies demonstrates that Islam is naturally compatible with the modern world. In fact, millions of Muslims are involved, often in leading positions, in the fields of science, mathematics, medicine, engineering and other scientific fields. However, if my modernity one means acceptance of the various values that underpin our modern lifestyles and worldview, the answer is more nuanced and complicated. Islam, like other religions, would not be compatible with a modernity which is opposed to the centrality of God, morality, and religion or which is based upon a worldview which regards material realities as the ultimate truth and goal.
Modernity void of morality has brought us the two deadliest wars in history, the Holocaust, and the atomic bomb. Uncontrolled capitalism and globalization have not only stripped the earth of irreplaceable resources and species but have also created huge economic disparities between the masses and the ultra-rich both among and within nations. For these and other reasons, many Muslims, like members of other religious and other groups, are increasingly concerned about the devastating effects that modernity and its accompanying technological advances, when influenced only by factors relating to economic profit and short-term gain, have had upon our environment and the world, which is now facing a threat to our very existence due to climate change.
What does Islam say about democracy? The concept of democracy is not universally agreed upon by all political scientists. Many take it to include some form of elected political representation, the rule of law, and protection of human rights of all citizens. These concepts, and especially the latter two, are central to Islamic teachings.
As for the method by which political leaders are chosen, Islam advocates a system of mutual consultation that can include popular elections as a means to choose both local and national leaders. Indeed, many Muslim-majority countries exercise this form of democracy, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Turkey, and Bangladesh, amongst others.
In fact, Pew polls in and have shown that a substantial majority of Muslims worldwide favor democracy. As we witnessed during the Arab Spring and beyond, people throughout the Arab world in countries like Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, and Syria have risked their lives, and in some places are still risking them, in their struggle for freedom and democratic change in their countries.
Do any such states exist today? Though these Islamic political parties participated in some instances in the democratic political process of their respective countries, their overall outlook of governance is closer to a theocracy, where the political leaders also function as religious leaders. This is in stark contrast to the early caliphates of Islam where political leaders left religious proclamations and determination of doctrine to the scholarly class, although these scholars often functioned as court judges and advisors to the ruling elite. Conversely, there are several Muslim-majority countries today that claim Islamic teachings or Sharia as the basis of their constitutions or laws.
What this means in practice is usually more ceremonial than practical, as these same countries often have Western legal systems in most aspects of their national and state laws, except in family matters related to marriage, divorce, and child custody. Additionally, many of these countries that claim to be Islamic states have a governing system which is not aligned with Islamic principles and are often oppressive both to their citizens and to other nations. Does Islam support individual rights?
In a Muslim society founded upon Islamic principles, the relationship between individual and community rights is based upon an understanding of the greater objective of producing and maintaining flourishing societies on all levels, not just the material, but also the spiritual and emotional. This includes the preservation of the sacred, whether in the form of religious spaces, individual religious practice, or religious tenets.
Islamic teachings aim to root individuals in communities that foster their ability to rise to their full human potential. A Pew poll showed a substantial majority of Muslims worldwide in favor of democracy and freedom of religion. While the poll did not ask questions specifically about freedom of expression, it is likely, in view of their answers to the aforementioned questions, that a substantial majority would favor these rights as well.
What is Sharia? The term Sharia is used by Muslims to refer to the values, code of conduct, and religious commandments or sacred laws which provide them with guidance in various aspects of life. What are the sources of Sharia and how is it interpreted? Fiqh is an interpretation of Sharia and, like halakha or Jewish law, is an ongoing effort and process.
Because much of Sharia is interpretative, it has a degree of flexibility that allows it to function in different societies and cultures. Thus, Islamic law or fiqh has historically functioned in diverse areas in the world, generally with a demonstrated record of tolerance and pluralism towards other cultures and religions.
What issues does Sharia address? Sharia addresses both personal and communal aspects of life. For the most part, Sharia is concerned with personal religious observances such as prayer and fasting. It can be further divided into three more specific areas, some of which apply to Muslim Americans and some of which do not:.
What types of Muslims follow Sharia? Any observant Muslim would consider him or herself to be Sharia-adherent. It is impossible to find a Muslim who practices any Islamic ritual and does not believe himself or herself to be complying with Sharia. How does sacred law such as Sharia interact with secular law? Almost all religions have some kind of sacred law. Secular law also provides parameters or limits on following sacred law, to ensure that the public interest is protected e.
How do American democracy and Sharia relate to each other? American democracy is based on the Constitution. The Constitution protects rights such as religious freedom, privacy, and private property. Muslim Americans can follow Sharia Islamic values and way of life in the same way that adherents of other religions follow their sacred laws, values, and lifestyles. The basic parts of Sharia rituals, marriage and family life, charity and ethical business practices are private and voluntary. Is Sharia being substituted for the U.
However, the First Amendment clearly provides protection for the free exercise of religion, which includes protecting the rights of Muslims, as of Jews and Christians, to observe their own laws in matters of faith, including the adherence to rules regarding personal worship and some family laws. However, no religious law can supersede state or federal law. Moreover, Sharia commands Muslims to abide by the law of the land in which they reside. What is a fatwa? Fatwa is an Arabic term that means a ruling or legal opinion that has been deduced by a qualified Islamic scholar or someone claiming authority in Islam on issues pertaining to Islamic law that generally have not been previously decided.
Since these opinions are non-binding, Muslims are free to choose whether or not to follow them. What happens to a Muslim who does not follow one of the pillars? We believe that acts of worship should be done for the sake of God and that God alone will judge each person according to his or her intentions and actions. When I visited Johnson, not long ago, at his office on Park Avenue South, he described himself as an accidental student of civic anxiety.
I used to live in Belle Haven, in Greenwich, Connecticut. From my own career, I would just talk to people. They have to be on the plane. That gap is comparable to the gap between average incomes in the U. On a cool evening in early November, I rented a car in Wichita, Kansas, and drove north from the city through slanting sunlight, across the suburbs and out beyond the last shopping center, where the horizon settles into farmland. After a couple of hours, just before the town of Concordia, I headed west, down a dirt track flanked by corn and soybean fields, winding through darkness until my lights settled on a large steel gate.
A guard, dressed in camouflage, held a semiautomatic rifle. Read classic New Yorker stories, curated by our archivists and editors. He ushered me through, and, in the darkness, I could see the outline of a vast concrete dome, with a metal blast door partly ajar. I was greeted by Larry Hall, the C.
The facility housed a nuclear warhead from to , when it was decommissioned. At a site conceived for the Soviet nuclear threat, Hall has erected a defense against the fears of a new era. The kids can run around. Hall got the idea for the project about a decade ago, when he read that the federal government was reinvesting in catastrophe planning, which had languished after the Cold War.
Bush ordered a renewed focus on continuity plans, and FEMA launched annual government-wide exercises. The most recent, Eagle Horizon, in , simulated hurricanes, improvised nuclear devices, earthquakes, and cyberattacks. In , he paid three hundred thousand dollars for the silo and finished construction in December, , at a cost of nearly twenty million dollars.
He created twelve private apartments: full-floor units were advertised at three million dollars; a half-floor was half the price. He has sold every unit, except one for himself, he said. The interior can support a total of seventy-five people. It has enough food and fuel for five years off the grid; by raising tilapia in fish tanks, and hydroponic vegetables under grow lamps, with renewable power, it could function indefinitely, Hall said. Residents with private planes can land in Salina, about thirty miles away. In his view, the Army Corps did the hardest work by choosing the location.
Hall, in his late fifties, is barrel-chested and talkative. He studied business and computers at the Florida Institute of Technology and went on to specialize in networks and data centers for Northrop Grumman, Harris Corporation, and other defense contractors. He now goes back and forth between the Kansas silo and a home in the Denver suburbs, where his wife, a paralegal, lives with their twelve-year-old son. Hall led me through the garage, down a ramp, and into a lounge, with a stone fireplace, a dining area, and a kitchen to one side.
It had the feel of a ski condo without windows: pool table, stainless-steel appliances, leather couches. To maximize space, Hall took ideas from cruise-ship design. We were accompanied by Mark Menosky, an engineer who manages day-to-day operations. While they fixed dinner—steak, baked potatoes, and salad—Hall said that the hardest part of the project was sustaining life underground. He studied how to avoid depression add more lights , prevent cliques rotate chores , and simulate life aboveground. The condo walls are fitted with L.
Owners can opt instead for pine forests or other vistas. Some survivalists disparage Hall for creating an exclusive refuge for the wealthy and have threatened to seize his bunker in a crisis. Hall waved away this possibility when I raised it with him over dinner. These days, when North Korea tests a bomb, Hall can expect an uptick in phone inquiries about space in the complex.
He suspects that the Ebola virus was allowed to enter the country in order to weaken the population. Ten years ago, this just seemed crazy that all this was going to happen: the social unrest and the cultural divide in the country, the race-baiting and the hate-mongering. Allen told me that, in his view, taking precautions is unfairly stigmatized. Why do our dystopian urges emerge at certain moments and not others? Doomsday—as a prophecy, a literary genre, and a business opportunity—is never static; it evolves with our anxieties.
The earliest Puritan settlers saw in the awe-inspiring bounty of the American wilderness the prospect of both apocalypse and paradise. When, in May of , sudden darkness settled on New England, farmers perceived it as a cataclysm heralding the return of Christ. In fact, the darkness was caused by enormous wildfires in Ontario. Lawrence diagnosed a specific strain of American dread. Historically, our fascination with the End has flourished at moments of political insecurity and rapid technological change.
There was a huge inequity in wealth, a stirring of working classes. Life spans were getting shorter. Business titans grew uncomfortable. Rockefeller founded the University of Chicago. During the Cold War, Armageddon became a matter for government policymakers. Hidden beneath the Greenbrier Resort, in White Sulphur Springs, for more than thirty years, it maintained separate chambers-in-waiting for the House and the Senate. Congress now plans to shelter at undisclosed locations. There was also a secret plan to whisk away the Gettysburg Address, from the Library of Congress, and the Declaration of Independence, from the National Archives.
But in John F. The sociologist Richard G. Mitchell, Jr. What do I do now? The movement received another boost from the George W. These days, when North Korea tests a bomb, Hall can expect an uptick of phone inquiries about space in the Survival Condo Project. But he points to a deeper source of demand. After dinner, Hall and Menosky gave me a tour. The complex is a tall cylinder that resembles a corncob. It felt compact but not claustrophobic. We visited an armory packed with guns and ammo in case of an attack by non-members, and then a bare-walled room with a toilet.
In general, the rules are set by a condo association, which can vote to amend them. We stopped in a condo. There are three broad answers. We are all afraid of death. We respond to the fear of epidemic disease by wanting to blame someone else. Aids was blamed on gay men. We want to punish those with the disease, pretending that whatever makes them other has cursed them.
The most contagious behavioural reaction that affects political leaders, businesspeople and the public is panic that disproportionately exceeds the actual event.
clublavoute.ca/hokib-conocer-gente-gratis.php Scared people overpersonalise the news, and their worries increase. Fear is a warning system intended to alert us to impending danger, just as it is in animals. When we let it override our rationality, we make things much worse. Second is denial and complacency, which often starts at the top, with political leaders or public health officials who reject the reality before them. Denial undermines the very trust needed to combat an epidemic. And complacency sets in when the last epidemic passes.
How many times do governments and leaders plead that there is no budget for preparedness? How many disease-fostering agribusiness companies line the pockets of politicians who conveniently overlook the threats bubbling up from factory farm sewage? Not recognising these failings — and not doing everything we can in spite of them to prevent a potentially staggering loss of life and livelihood — would be not just irresponsible, but criminal.
All kinds of complex and interconnected social, economic and environmental risk factors contribute to the emergence and spread of disease. Consider how just one, population growth, leads to a whole set of others. More than half that number will be born in Africa , and most of them will be packed into dense urban areas where an epidemic can spread like wildfire. The more people there are, the greater the demand for shelter, food and water. Imagine that you are a poor person living in a remote part of Guinea or the Amazon jungle, and you want to do the thing that is most instinctive for all of us: to stay alive.
If you are lucky enough to procure cows, goats or chickens, you need room for a pasture. And if you need wood for fires or to build a house, you chop down the trees. But your own personal needs are nothing in comparison to the demands of agribusiness and industry, which obliterates millions of acres of forestland each year. Between and , these industries annually consumed some 13 million hectares 50, square miles.
Clear-cutting — cutting down every tree in an area — brings people in closer contact with primates, rodents and bats that carry dangerous pathogens. Some researchers believe that ravaged tropical forests and increased human activity in countries such as Liberia and Guinea presented an ideal opportunity for the Ebola virus to jump from its natural reservoir to humans. Deforestation also leads to flooding, which attracts mosquitoes. The hotter the jungle and the planet becomes as a result of all this deforestation, the happier mosquitoes are.
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Those that are not extinct may have migrated to more northerly realms that are rapidly becoming more hospitable, thanks to global climate change. On any given day, millions of people around the world are moving around on planes, trains, boats, trucks and automobiles, some from places where undiscovered viruses are festering in the bloodstreams of wild beasts and fowls. An average of 10 million people a day take to the skies; 3.
All this creates huge opportunities for the transcontinental spread of pathogens such as Sars , Ebola or Zika. And the duration of the longest intercontinental flights is now greater than the incubation period of several common pathogens. A person may be asymptomatic when they get on a jumbo jet in Hong Kong, but by the time they land in New York they will have spread the virus to the crew and passengers. In the case of Aids, the virus spread slowly at first. Then, as Africa became more urbanised and roads connected remote regions to cities, men went to the cities to look for work.
Those men hooked up with infected prostitutes who spread the virus to clients. Disease travels especially fast in west Africa, where the population is highly mobile. People move around a lot to look for work or food or to visit extended family members across borders.
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