Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs


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Cremo, author of Forbidden Archeology and Human Devolution From the pyramids in the north to the temples in the south, ancient artisans left their marks all over Egypt, unique marks that reveal craftsmanship we would be hard pressed to duplicate today. Using digital photography, computer-aided design software, and metrology instruments, Dunn exposes the extreme precision of these monuments and the type of advanced manufacturing expertise necessary to produce them. His computer analysis of the many statues of Ramses II reveals that the left and right sides of the faces are precise mirror images of each other, and his examination of the mysterious underground tunnels of the Serapeum illuminates the finest examples of precision engineering on the planet.

Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Simon and Schuster. Condition: New. Brand New. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. Language: English. Brand new Book. From the pyramids in the north to the temples in the south, ancient artisans left their marks all over Egypt, unique marks that reveal craftsmanship we would be hard pressed to duplicate today.

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Using modern digital photography, computer-aided design software and metrology instruments, Dunn exposes the extreme precision of these monuments and the type of advanced manufacturing expertise necessary to produce them. His computer analysis of the statues of Ramses II reveals that the left and right sides of the faces are precise mirror images of each other and his examination of the mysterious underground tunnels of the Serapeum illuminates the finest examples of precision engineering on the planet.

Providing never-before-seen evidence in the form of more than photographs, Dunn's research shows that while absent from the archaeological record, highly refined tools, techniques and even mega-machines must have been used in ancient Egypt. Seller Inventory AA Never used!. Nonetheless, like most humans, I had a natural curiosity about how things are made or done and why. My curiosity then turned toward the subject that Dunn had spent the past twenty years studying in his spare time, and I was impressed by the enthusiasm and sense of wonder he had for it.

Over breakfast after a Sunday walk, Dunn would discuss his thoughts on ancient technologies. We would also discuss the online controversies that swirled around his comments, theories, and questions raised in his first book, The Giza Power Plant. Dunn's analysis did not stop there; he instead applied the criticism he received to improve his methods and collect further evidence.

In February of, Dunn took another of his many trips to Egypt, this time with a tour group that visited a number of temples in Upper He returned from the trip with a new and elevated interest in the accomplishments of the ancient Egyptians in the temples, particularly the statuary.

This included many looks through the viewfinder of his camera equipped with a telephoto lens and then verifying the results captured by the camera. From personal observation, I can verify that in this book Dunn has been true to the evidence he observed. He also used his camera to capture what he could not necessarily reach and was thoughtful and creative in his approach.

Recognizing the Brilliance of Ancient Manufactu ring xix recognize. On this trip I was able, through Dunn's camera, to see the tool marks on the cheek of one of the Ramses in the Temple at Karnak, even though the head of that statue was some 45 feet in the air. I was later able to examine the resulting photograph, as can the reader later in this book.

I vividly remember my first and then every subsequent visit to the Luxor Temple. Although smaller than the nearby Temple at Karnak, the Luxor Temple is impressive. Each had something different to offer and yet they harmoniously fit together. From these thoughts, my mind was opened to a new awareness. As I am confronted with the evidence, both in Dunn's book and from my own personal observation, I find myself wondering, among other things, how the technology of the ancient Egyptians that allowed them to carve and shape stone as they did was applied in other areas of their society, such as healthcare and dentistry for example.

Wouldn't the ancient Egyptians have done the same? I am reminded of this quotation from John Stuart Mill in Considerations on Representative Government: "From despairing of a cure, there is too often but one step to denying the disease; and from this follows dislike to having a remedy proposed, as if the proposer were creating a mischief instead of offering relief from one. This skepticism is healthy and helpfuL It is not cynicism, however. It is not contempt for the theories or ideas of others or for those who proffer those theories or ideas. It is a questioning and a testing of one's own ideas and theories as well as those of others.

I am confident that the obvious sophistication of the ancient Egyptians revealed in this book will, in due time, prompt western scholars and others around the Recognizing the Brilliance of Ancient Manufacturing xxi world to reexamine what has been written about ancient Egypt and to consider what else the citizens of that ancient civilization, by whatever means, accomplished.

JUDD C. Peck graduated from the University of Illinois College of Law magna cum laude in Figure 3. Figures 7. Arlan Andrews Sr. Figures ILl, Figures Ll9, 4. Figure 9. Figures 5. Figures 9. Figures 6. Figure 6.

A Famous Unfinished Obelisk

Figures 8. For her unwavering support and encouragement, I thank my wife, Jeanne. Her patience and intelligence, not to mention her enthusiasm for my work, are acknowledged with love and appreciation. Thanks and love also to my sons Peter, Alexander, and Geno, who have stood by me and supported all my research and trips to Egypt. My sincere gratitude goes to Judd Peck for his wisdom, advice, and friendship. I also extend my sincere appreciation to Edward F.

Malkowski, who provided life-saving assistance on that ill-fated trip. My brother Bernard, sister Angela, and their families who stood by ready to assist, and the people of Danville, Illinois, and many others around the world who expressed concern and gave an outpouring of support to Jeanne and me during this ordeal. My thanks, also, to the staff of the Dar Al Fouad hospital in 6th of October City and Provena Medical Center in Danville, who provided excellent care to a very difficult patient. I cannot thank him and his wife, Joyce, enough for their incredible support. The irrepressibly passionate Stephen Mehler and Theresa Crater, who sometimes get more excited about my work than I do, have been valuable supporters and have shined their own bright light on the true heritage of the ancient Khemitians Egyptians.

Thanks and blessings to Norma Eckroate for her incredible support and promotion of new information about ancient cultures. Randy Ashton, Dr. Robert Schoch, Michael Cremo, Dr. Hurtak, and Colin Wilson. For their contribution to a greater understanding of Petrie's infamous Core 7, I would like to thank Dr. Special thanks go to Dr. Zahi Hawass for his Egyptian hospitality and helpfulness in providing permission to the worker's village, the Great Pyramid, and the Serapeum.

To Adel Hussein Mohamed, the Denys Stocks, for his professional and thorough answers to my e-mailed questions, and Marcus Allen, for his interest and input regarding the Petrie Core 7.

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From Inner Traditions. I appreciate the comments and the challenges, and I hope they will continue. Introduction Tell me, Mr. Hoover, what are your interests? Madam, I am an Engineer. I took youfor a gentleman. Hoover's confused lady acquaintance had the wrong impression of what an engineer does, since a train driver is also known as an engineer. And all may not be considered gentlemen-many you may meet will be ladies. Each engineer works in a specialized field, and within those particular disciplines are subgroups that work in myriad industries that form the fabric and backbone of modern civilization.

Of themselves and their machines, the life of an engineer is frequently punctuated with Scotty's Star Trek lament, "Can't take much more 0 ' this, Captain! For instance, you have just arrived in the office, hung up your coat, and poured yourself a cup of your favorite morning beverage. Crafted into the 1 Around this time, many of the machines that are now used in manufacturing were either invented or improved. Its development as an efficient metal-cutting machine grew from the invention of the steam engine, which powered everything from textile mills to Stephenson's Rocket, the first steam locomotive to convert linear motion to rotary motion and use that rotary motion to propel itself along two rails at the dizzying speed of twenty-five miles per hour.

In the past sixty years, technology has advanced rapidly in directions that many people, except science fiction writers and futurists, could not even have imagined possible. Three hundred years before the Industrial Revolution was in full swing, geniuses arose among their peers and made their mark, adding to the prosperity and understanding of future generations. The genius of Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, and Galileo is well known. With its genesis in the s, what is now known as the Scientific Revolution foughtagainst the church and superstitious beliefs to create the foundation of modern science.

The heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus shattered many beliefs of the Introduction 3 earth's preeminence in the universe, and the Catholic church, which opposed such heresy, fought tooth and nail to stop the rush of intellect that ultimately reshaped our beliefs about nature and ourselves. The second was to divide up each of the difficulties which I examined into as manyparts as possible, and as seemed requisite in order that it might be resolved in the best manner possible.

Up until today, this advancement has spanned five hundred years. Within that time we have gone from an agrarian society with a much lauded, simple, pastoral existence to a complex industrial society with products that were undreamed of when the creator of the world's first successful locomotive, Robert Stephenson, cried out, "full steam ahead! The landscape of the ancient world is dotted with fabulous structures that are breathtaking in their complexity.

The Egyptians and Mayans had their pyramids and temples. The Hindus crafted elaborate temples throughout Asia. The Romans made their mark all over their world, with engineering geniuses guiding the construction of their famous roads, the Coliseum, and numerous temples and viaducts, while Roman sculptors guided their chisels over marble and alabaster, giving it physical presence and beauty. Going back yet further in time, another deep mystery lies in the question of how the ancient Egyptian civilization could have lasted for three thousand years without improving the tools used to quarry and shape stone to near perfection.

The article proposed that the ancient Egyptians were more advanced than previously believed and that they used advanced tools and methods to cut granite, diorite, and other difficult-to-work stone. Introduction 5 In fact quite the opposite is true. Anyone who suggests that the ancient Egyptians were more advanced actually shows more, not less, deference and respect to their civilization.

Such a statement does not diminish their culture in any way. It is our own culture's chauvinistic view of Egypt that threads throughout our history books. This is the language of science, engineering, and manufacturing. With their works, ancient engineers, perhaps unwittingly, created a sort of Mecca for modern engineers and technologists. The ancient Egyptians who built the pyramids and temples, who crafted monumental statues out of igneous rock, were thinking with the minds of architects, engineers, and craftspeople.

Without the advice of modern Egyptian architects, engineers, and craftspeople, are today's Egyptian archaeologists missing something? Are modern interpretations of the awesome feats of the ancient Egyptians irrelevant in providing new and powerful information about this ancient culture? Are the thoughts and conclusions of Western writers and travelers who stood in front of What can be described as a "modern perspective?

So were Egyptophiles Petrie, Marriette, Champollion, and Howard Carter-each in possession of a modern mind that was clothed in a fabric of prejudices and stereotypes that existed within their own culture. When it comes to completely understanding the ancient Egyptians' level of technological prowess, there can be no final conclusion. What is left to study today is a mere skeleton of what existed at the time of the ancient Egyptians. This skeleton survives as highly sophisticated and precisely crafted sedimentary and igneous rock.

It is my belief that the clothes we have placed on this skeleton are mere rags compared to what should be there. I have proposed in the past that higher levels of technology were used by the ancient Egyptians, but you will find in this book that I have rejected some ideas and cast doubt on all my previous assertions as to the level of technology they enjoyed. At the same time, I cast doubt on the methods of manufacture that Egyptologists have asserted were used to build the pyramids and the glorious temples in Egypt.

Nobody can claim that they know what was in the minds of the ancient Egyptians. All we have are their works: "By their works, ye shall know them. In the following pages I present another view of ancient Egyptian artifacts: the view of a modern craftsman and engineer made possible through the use and knowledge of modern technology. After I describe each work, we will examine the methods of con- 'Matthew Introduction 7 struction that have been proposed by Egyptologists and discuss some of the arguments against and for considering other methods that are more advanced. It is my sincere wish that the artifacts are respected and understood for what they are.

They are priceless treasures and would have astronomical value if produced today using modern tools. Their value in raising awareness and dispelling cultural bias, even while short of real answers, cannot be calculated in monetary terms. The Shadows of Luxor 9 Within the Ramses Hall at Luxor, subtle curves and shaded hues of geometric perfection create an effect that seems designed to mask the real truth about the artifacts.

Waiting for millennia for questions that have not been asked, let alone answered, the perfectly crafted granite statues of Ramses II smile and gaze upon each person who enters the hall and tries to come to terms with and grasp the true meaning of the Temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu at Luxor. Sometimes referred to as the world's greatest open air museum, the city of Luxor is situated in Upper Egypt, where once stood the ancient city of Thebes, approximately four hundred miles south of Cairo. The temple complexes of Karnak and Amun-Mut-Khonsu stand within the city, and the latter is commonly referred to as the Luxor Temple.

Monuments, temples, and tombs of the west bank necropolis lie beyond the sails and include the Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Queens, the Ramesseum, and roads leading to the temples of the north. If special recognition was given to the billionth visitor to Luxor, I probably missed it by centuries. Out-of-season accommodations play host to more visitors than a hotel in a normal town would at the height of any tourist season. In any society, there are geniuses that innovate and make their mark by providing novel and revolutionary iconic images.

This expression guides the chisel and the pen. Figure 1. The Ramses Hall at luxor The temples have inspired many to write eloquently about the city's magnificent monuments, its history, and the archaeological studies that have yielded untold riches in antiquities. From the profound power of the Lascaux cave images to The Shadows of Luxor 1 1 the spattering of Jackson Pollock, art calls to something within the observer. In the case of Luxor and the images of Ramses, the art is highly stylized, symbolic, and uniform. On another level, to the sculptor who has worked in stone and to the technologist whose job it is to shape adamantine materials, it calls out a question and issues a challenge: "What am I?

How did I come to exist? Build another just like me. Bring me back to life! Know me-who I was and what I was. The only way to do this is to understand what I am and build another! Why am I smiling? There is more here than meets the eye. Exact replicas of Ramses' image were crafted in limestone, sandstone, quartzite, granite, and diorite. Some pieces, such as the Colossi of Memnon, weigh more than 1, tons. Other statues at Luxor weigh tons. In fact, just the crowns that top the statues each weigh more than a ton.

What distinguishes the Ramses statues is the iconic imagery of the perfect face.

Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt Advanced Engineering

It seems that no matter which of the Ramses statues we look at, the same smiling face gazes through you, into infinity. In order to accomplish this effect, the ancient sculptors worked to a uniform system of measurement and a design scheme. We can then ask the question: What was the fundamental scheme that the ancient Egyptians used to create and re-create this iconic image in stone?

In , I visited Memphis, near Saqqara, and gazed down at the Looking down the length of the statue, it struck me as peculiar that the left and right nostrils were identical mirror images of each other. It is common knowledge that no adult walking the earth has nostrils that are identically shaped. I was there to study the pyramids and had not planned to visit any temples during my visit. I didn't realize at the time, though, how important my observation would become to my future research. My interest in the Ramses statues was rekindled when I visited Luxor in November Though I had been to Egypt four times before and learned to love the Egyptian people for their hospitality and sense of humor, this was my first visit to the temples in Upper Egypt.

Words cannot describe my feelings of wonder and awe as I absorbed the temples not only from a philosophical and spiritual aspect but also with my engineer's brain. These temples impressed upon me indelibly that they were incredibly important from an engineering and scientific perspective. For an engineer or artisan, to walk through the Temple of Luxor is an exercise in humility.

This ancient culture accepted the challenge to develop the tools to work glasslike stone-stone that was created by tremendous forces within the earth and spewed, or squeezed, from its fiery belly-to a high order of magnitude, proportion, and exactitude. Basalt, diorite, and granite yielded to these ancient tools-the quartz crystals abundantly present in the granite and diorite gave way The Sha dows of Luxor 1 3 to the application of ancient technology now lost.

Perfection was the goal, and the ancient Egyptians' stone-working craft, as we shall see, was perfected to the extent that exactness was achieved. Even if our mind is not normally turned toward philosophy, a visit to Egypt soon finds our thoughts seeking refuge in ruminations of wonder at what once was and what could have or must have been had there not been an interruption. From the perspective of a philosopher, the mortality of physical existence is reinforced.

We slowly realize that civilizations are like the human body-they have a life cycle. This is a. We become comfortable to the extent that we can master our environment, bur eventually we all must yield to the ultimate master. The natural cycles of the universe and their concomitant forces of nature unleash death and destruction with as much indifference and impartiality as they provide what is necessary for life to exist. The Temple of Luxor holds a message for our civilization-one that reaches across millennia through the ravages of time, and, though shaken, crippled, and on its knees, it implores us to pay attention.

I was with a delightful, eclectic group of people on a tour of Egypt in November of A broad range of people from various backgrounds, including engineers, a pilot, salespeople, a doctor, a nurse, a minister, and, from Florida, a sassy barmaid with an infectious laugh, milled around the bus every morning in anticipation of another great day in the field. Everybody was having a wonderful time, and we all had one thing in common: a deep respect for the Egyptian culture and its monuments. Good humor and jokes flew around the bus like the swallows that swirl around the Great Pyramid at dawn.


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Instead, I focused my attention on the pyramids and what I considered to be their more technical engineering attributes. As a part When you are part of a tour group, your visits to temples are strictly controlled. Generally, the tour operator takes you to Luxor at a time when it is the most visually stimulating: at night, when the temple is lit up with carefully designed and directed lighting. When you walk among the massive columns that reach to the sky like giant redwoods, the chattering of numerous tour guides fades as the power ofthe temple imposes its own majesty and voice onto your consciousness.

Sir William Flinders Petrie was one of the great Egyptologists of the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Petrie found a number of core drills, many of which are now housed in the museum named after him at the University College London in London England. The actual hollow drill bits have not been found, but the cores made of limestone, alabaster, granite and other stones have.

Chris Dunn spent hours in the Petrie museum and was allowed to personally examine some of the drill cores. Here he discusses the characteristics of one of them:. It was times greater than modern diamond drills, but the rotation of the drill would not have been as fast as the modern drill's revolutions per minute.

The often times quoted idea that these drill cores were achieved using a bow and copper tube with sand used as an abrasive must be thrown out, as no modern replication of these cores has been done to the level of efficiency as discussed above. Between utensils of funeral objects that were extracted, Emery's attention was powerfully drawn to an object that he initially defined in his report on the Great Tombs of the I Dynasty as: 'a container in the form of schist bowl.

According to the typical and expected view of the archaeologists and Egyptologists, this object is no more than a tray or the pedestal of some candelabrum, with a design a product of blind chance. I am personally quite amazed that such a controversial piece is still on display in the Cairo museum, and wonder what even odder objects are hidden away in their warehouses.

At Karnak, which is a huge temple complex, we find many examples of ancient core drill holes, and one whose diameter is greater than a human hand. As you can see in the photograph the wall of the drill itself was thinner than 21 st century examples, and even engineers and mining experts that have seen it cannot explain what material the drill would have been made of to maintain its shape and stability at being so thin. Another perplexing site is what is called the Serapeum at Saqqara, containing massive granite boxes which many academics believe were created during dynastic times.

Manufacturer Chris Dunn is a man who knows what precision surfaces look like, as he has been involved in making complex metal parts for the aviation industry for decades. He has studied the boxes in the Serapeum many times, and has been able to measure the flatness of their granite and limestone surfaces using precise gauges.

The following are his thoughts, as found in an article on his website www. Considering that this dating was based on pottery items that were found and not the boxes themselves, it would be reasonable to speculate that the boxes have not been dated accurately. Their characteristics show that their creators used the same tools and were blessed with the same skill and knowledge as those who created Khafre's pyramid. Moreover, the boxes in both locations are evidence of a much higher purpose than mere burial sarcophagi.

They are finished to a high accuracy; their corners are remarkably square, and their inside corners worked down to a dimension that is sharper than what one would expect to find in an artifact from prehistory. All of these features are extremely difficult to accomplish and none of them necessary for a mere burial box. The manufacturers of these boxes in the Serapeum not only created inside surfaces that were flat when measured vertically and horizontally, they also made sure that the surfaces they were creating were square and parallel to each other, with one surface, the top, having sides that are 5 feet and 10 feet apart from each other.

But without such parallelism and squareness of the top surface, the squareness noted on both sides would not exist. While it may be argued that modern man cannot impose a modern perspective on artifacts that are thousands of years old, an appreciation of the level of precision found in these artifacts is lacking in archaeological literature and is only revealed by an understanding what it takes to produce this kind of work.

As an engineer and craftsman, who has worked in manufacturing for over 40 years and who has created precision artifacts in our modern world, in my opinion this accomplishment in prehistory deserves more recognition. Nobody does this kind of work unless there is a very high purpose for the artifact. Even the concept of this kind of precision does not occur to an artisan unless there is no other means of accomplishing what the artifact is intended to do. The only other reason that such precision would be created in an object would be that the tools that are used to create it are so precise that they are incapable of producing anything less than precision.

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Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt - Christopher Dunn - Häftad () | Bokus

With either scenario, we are looking at a higher civilization in prehistory than what is currently accepted. To me, the implications are staggering. This is why I believe that these artifacts that I have measured in Egypt are the smoking gun that proves, without a shadow of a doubt, that a higher civilization than what we have been taught existed in ancient Egypt. The evidence is cut into the stone.

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What we also have to take into consideration is that most of the boxes in the Serapeum were made of granite, and most likely stone brought from the quarry at Aswan, about miles from Saqqara. Not only that, but the lid of each box was cut from the same stone as the box itself. Why would the makers go to such trouble if bulls, no matter how prized, were the contents? An unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Aswan with holes showing how the granite would be split.

What you have seen and read here are but a few of multiple examples of artifacts that do not fit the paradigm of the dynastic Egyptians. These artifacts could not have been created by these people, and thus we must conclude that they are older.


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  • At age 11, he became fascinated with the Native art of the Haida native people, and began carving totem poles, and other related Read More. You can cut the hardest material with the same material. I do not in anyway suggest the ancients did not have an eye for craft and for the arts of professional precision. But, we don't have these issues to deal with, we process things in volume, these techniques don't matter in modern life.

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    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs
    Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt: Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs

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